Measuring AC Voltage with an AC to AC power adapter
An AC voltage measurement is needed to calculate real power, apparent power and power factor. This measurement can be made safely (requiring no high voltage work) by using an AC to AC power adaptor. The transformer in the adapter provides isolation between the high and low AC voltage.
This page covers briefly the electronics required to interface an AC to AC power adapter with an Arduino.
As in the case of current measurement with a CT sensor the main objective for the signal conditioning electronics detailed below is to condition the output of the AC power adapter so that it meets the input requirements of the Arduino analog inputs: a positive voltage between 0V and the ADC reference voltage (Usually 5V or 3.3V - emontx).
AC to AC power adapters can come in many different voltage ratings. The first thing that is important to know is the voltage rating of your adapter. We have made a list of the main AC voltage adapters that we have used here for reference (we have standardised on 9V AC RMS).
The output signal from the AC voltage adapter is a near-sinusoidal waveform. If you have a 9V (RMS) power adapter the positive signal peak should occur at +12.7V and the negative signal peak should occur at -12.7V. However due to the poor voltage regulation with this type of adapter when the adapter is un-loaded (as in this case) the output is often around 10V-12V (RMS) giving a peak voltage of around 14V-17V. The voltage output of the transformer is proportional to the AC input voltage, see below for notes on UK mains voltage notes.
The signal conditioning electronics needs to convert the output of the adapter to a waveform that has a positive peak that's less than 5V (3.3V in the case of the emonTx) and a negative peak that is more than 0V and so we need to 1) scale down the waveform and 2) add an offset so that there is no negative component.
The waveform can be scaled down using a voltage divider connected across the adapters terminals and the offset (bias) can be added using a voltage source created by another voltage divider connected across the Arduino's supply (in the same way as we added a bias for the current sensing CT circuit).
Here's the circuit diagram (left) and (right) the voltage waveforms:
Resistors R2 and R1 form the voltage divider that scales down the power adapter AC voltage and resistors R3 and R4 provide the voltage bias. Capacitor C1 provides a low impedance path to ground for the a.c. signal.
R1 and R2 need to be chosen to give a peak-voltage-output of around 1V, for an AC-AC adapter with an AC 9V RMS output a resistor combination of 10k for R1 and 100k for R2 would give a suitable output:
peak-voltage-output = R1 / (R1 + R2) x peak-voltage-input = 10k / (10k + 100k) x 12.7V = 1.15V
The voltage bias provided by R3 and R4 should be half of the Arduino supply voltage and so R3 and R4 need to be equal. Higher resistance lowers energy consumption. For the emonTx where low power consumption on battery power is important we have used 470k resistors for both R3 and R4.
If the Arduino is running at 5V the resultant waveform of the circuit has a positive peak of 2.5V + 1.15V = 3.65V and negative peak of 1.35V satisfying the Arduino analog input voltage requirements and leaving plenty of room so that there is no risk of over or under voltage.
The 10k and 100k R1 and R2 combination also works fine for 3.3V as used by the emonTx. With a positive peak of 2.8V and a negative peak of 0.5V.
If you would like detailed information on how to calculate the optimum values for the components taking component tolerances into account, then this page might help you.
To use the above circuit along with a current measurement to measure real power, apparent power, power factor, Vrms and Irms upload the Arduino sketch detailed here: Arduino sketch - voltage and current
Improving the quality of the bias source
This relatively simple voltage bias source does have some limitations, see the Buffered Voltage Bias Circuit for a circuit that offers enhanced performance.
Notes on Mains Voltage Limits
The standard domestic mains supply for Europe is 230 V ± 10%, giving a lower limit of 207 V and an upper limit of 253 V. It is permissible under BS 7671 to have a voltage drop within the installation of 5%, which would give a lower limit of 185.5 V.
The UK standard prior to harmonization was 240 V ± 6%, giving an upper limit of 254.4 V.
Although the UK nominal standard is now 230 V, the supply system has not generally been adjusted and the voltage centers around 240 V.
Thanks to Robert Wall for summarizing the rather convoluted standards surrounding UK grid voltages.
All of Europe, Africa, Asia, Australia, New Zealand and most of South America use a supply that is within 6% of 230 V