## Measuring DC current with an LT1495

Important: In the end I found the dc shunt solution below to be more expensive and less reliable than using some nice pre built modules from cool components:

Voltage and current monitoring:

http://www.coolcomponents.co.uk/catalog/attopilot-voltage-current-sense-...

Current only

http://www.coolcomponents.co.uk/catalog/acs715-current-sensor-breakout-p...

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For reference

Updated 24June 2010: Corrections and detailed calibration procedure

Picture: is of the DC current meter on the right of the Arduino and the load controller on the left.

### Introduction

This page details how to build a DC current sensing circuit using a current sensing resistor and an LT1495 opamp. It can be used for high current applications such as measuring energy production from microrenewables or low power applications by selecting suitable component values.

### Component list

1x Arduino

Current sensing resistors

There are many current sensing resistors out there, here are two suggestions. I'm using the first one at the moment but would like to try the second when I get a chance.

1x 0.0005Ohm current sensing resistor rated at max 100A. farnell

or 1x 0.005Ohm current sensing resistor rated at max 31A farnell

Sensing circuit

The LT1495 has two opamps, if you need two current sensors, the second opamp on the LT1495 can be used. You will just need 2x the other components in the circuit.

1x LT1495

1x 470kOhm resistors for RB

2x 10kOhm resistors for RA

1x 2N3904 transistors

1x 22nf capacitor for C

### Current measurment

The current is measured by measuring the voltage drop across a low resistance current sensing resistor. This voltage is amplified by the LT1495 op amp chip and the 2N3904 transistor. The amplified ouput voltage is then connected to an Arduino analog input.

The range of current that can be measured by the circuit is defined by Rsens, RA, RB and the Arduino analog reference voltage.

The Voltage out from the current sensing circuit is given by:

Note: I will add a worked example here soon.

## The Arduino Sketch

The Arduino along with the arduino sketch reads in the ADC value that corresponds to the voltage at the analog input pin. It then converts the ADC value into a current value. The current sensor dc library is intended to make all this a little more straight forward. The main commands to get the sensor up and running are:

Include the library:

#include "CurrentSensorDC.h"

Create a DC sensor: nameOfSensor( the analog input pin, calibration value m, calibration value c):

CurrentSensorDC sensorA( 0 , 1.0 , 0.0 );

Returns the current value as a floating point number:

sensorA.getCurrent();

Copy the library to your Arduino/Libraries folder and compile+upload the Sketch to the Arduino.

If you now go to the Arduino Serial monitor you should see a stream of floating point values.

At this point the program is not calibrated, the output corresponds to the ADC value. So to see current values the next step is:

## Calibration

### 2 point calibration procedure.

1) Take a reading from arduino monitor and reference meter (digital multimeter dmm) at 0 current.

For example: Emon: 1.70 dmm: 0.00A

2) Take a reading from arduino monitor and reference meter (dmm) at a current value close to the maximum current you intend to measure.

For example: Emon: 182.5 dmm: 8.08A

3) Use the equation of a straight line (y=mx +c) to find the calibration.

y1 = dmm 0 current.   y2 = dmm max current.

x1 = emon value at 0 current   x2 = emon value at max current

y1 = m x1 + c   :   y2 = m x2 + c

Rearranging to find m and c:

m  = (y2 – y1) / (x2 – x1)   and   c = y1 – m x1

With the example values from set one and two the calibration values are:

m = 0.044690265   :   c = −0.075973451

4) Insert the calibration values into the Arduino sketch at the following lines:

CurrentSensorDC sensorA(0, m , c );

If all is well, you should now read current!

### Accuracy

I obtained the following accuracy below with circuit configured for 0 to 46Amps, but test range 0 - 10A due to max 10A range of DMM.

I tested 8 points along the 0 to 10A range so by no means a comprehensive test, but useful indication of accuracy none the less.

Standard deviation of the error: 0.01A

Maximum error: 0.02A

## Further Development

It would be good to explore use of cheaper shunts linked above.

The LT1495 circuit above is adapted from the linear technologies application notes on DC current sensing that can be found here (There's also a lot of other interesting info there too):

Good article on high versus low side current sensing:

Low-side vs. high-side current sensing by Arpit Mehta

### Use Example

Hugh piggott Wind turbines

The reason I needed a DC energy monitor.

North Wales wind turbine built on a course organised by myself and V3 Power.

Cardiff EWB wind turbine built as a training project with the Cardiff branch of Engineers Without Borders.

Both wind turbine are 12V DC machines. They can produce up to around 500W of power, about 40Amps.

Pictures of the wind turbine up in late July 2009. It was the first test of the wind turbine energy monitoring:

Here's a video of it all working, sorry about the rushed and blurry video taking...

### Re: DC shunt

Hi folks,
if anyone has any thoughts on the following i would be very interested.

I have been trying to build a battery monitor using the Battery Monitor Circuit with the LT1495 OpAmp. I am getting strange results.
Ultimately i want to measure current up to 150amps in a 24v circuit. I have chosen a 200a 75mv shunt, as i can also use it with my PL20 solar/wind regulator eventually if I choose.

Vcc is 5v.
Rsense is 0.000375 ohm (200a, 75mA Shunt)
Ra=3k and Rb=220k.
Without the shunt connected to a battery circuit, I measure 0v across the shunt with my DMM.
However For both Vout im getting non zero values.
What is even more strange is that im getting up to 11v. Yet VCC is only 5v and I have no other voltage source connected. I have checked and doubled checked the DMM range and all other values like the power supply, batteries etc are all measuring accurately.

It gets even more strange when i connect the shunt into the battery circuit. With only 1amp being drawn Vout is giving me 28v!...

Im glad i didnt hook up my arduino to the circuit before testing....i would have made magic smoke.

Any guidance you could provide would be much appreciated.

cheers
Andrew

### Re: DC shunt

hi,

could anyone have the answer for this. Please share the solution as I'm also facing this type of problem. checked a few times, circuit was right.

thanks

### Re: DC shunt

Trystian im going to use ur electronic,(current) diagram for a personal project.
thanks for sharing all info you give, hi from mexico.(I consider mi self an arduino/avr FAN)

### Re: DC shunt

Hey ebox, awesome, good luck with your project!

### Re: DC shunt

Nice project Trystan I plan on encorporating this power monitor into my ECE senior design. I was wondering if it was at all possible to program the arduino and run the computer side software on windows.

### Re: DC shunt

Hey Nathan, it should be possible without much work, programming the arduino is the same you just download the windows version of the arduino IDE off the arduino site here: http://arduino.cc. As for the computer side software the way the computer side works is that you first read the data from the arduino with the ArduinoComm program and then access the data with a graphing program like KST. KST for windows can be downloaded here: http://kst.kde.org/. I havent tried to run ArduinoComm in windows yet but I imagine a couple of things would need to be changed to port it over to windows. If you have a look for tutorials on installing and starting with Java Development Kit that would probably be a good point to start, once youve got programs compiling and running then converting arduinoComm to run on windows hopefully wont be too much work.

Trystan

### Re: DC shunt

Hey Trystan, I was also wondering why your wind generator only outputs 12V as you will need around 13.5 or so to charge your battery bank. Do you have some sort of boost converter at the input of the battery bank or are you're batteries smaller then 12v?

### Re: DC shunt

Hey Nathan, a yes these things are usually called either 12V, 24V, 48V turbines. The actual voltage will vary between 0 and say 14.4V for a "12V" turbine depending on the speed of rotation of the turbine. So as the wind picks up the turbine spins up and the voltage climbs up to about 13.1V  - 13.5V as you say when the batteries can start to be charged. As long as you have enough batteries they should then load the turbine in such a way as to keep the voltage from going above ideally about 13.8V. One then uses a dump load controller and dump loads to stop the voltage from climbing much higher for long lengths of time.

### Re: DC shunt

For a lower-cost alternative, you might look at using one or two MAX4392 current-sense amplifiers. Not available as DIP package, though.

-jcw

### Re: DC shunt

As I understand the datasheet the LM358 will take a common mode input up to 28.5 V when running off a 5 V supply. Cheap and available in DIP. I was doodling a similar design myself the other day (for monitoring currents into and out of a battery bank via an Arduino) but I have other priorities than actually making such a thing for the moment.