Electricity monitoring application note
This page accompanies the main openenergymonitor guide. This page details application specific notes for electricity monitoring
As detailed in the main guide an openenergymonitor system comprises of wireless sensor nodes that send data at periodic intervals to a web-connected base-station. The wireless sensor node that is used for the electricity monitoring is the multi purpose board called the emontx.
There are two main configurations for electricity monitoring:
Measuring current only is comparable to many if not most of the home electricity monitors that are available. The only sensor needed is a sensor that clips around the mains wire coming into the house. This sensor is called a current transformer or CT sensor. For an explanation for how they work see CT sensors - Introduction.
Power is calculated by multiplying the current measurement (RMS current) with a fixed voltage value (i.e 230V). This particular type of power measurement is called Apparent Power and is actually different from the power that utitilty companies bill for which is called Real Power. AC Power is a complex subject, to learn more start with the An introduction to AC Power.
Voltage and current
By measuring mains voltage as well as current its possible to calculate Real Power in addition to other quantities (Apparent Power, RMS Voltage, RMS Current). Measuring voltage as well as current is better both in terms of the measurement being what is billed for and due to hardware intricacies the measurement is more accurate at lower power's.
To measure mains voltage safely we use a standard AC to AC power adapter that steps down and isolates the AC Voltage waveform. See building blocks section: Measuring AC Voltage with an AC to AC power adapter
The decision whether to monitor voltage or not often comes down to if there is a AC plug socket in close proximity to the electricity meter cabinet.
At this point it may also be useful to review the CT and AC power adapter installation and calibration theory page.
The emontx v3 can be powered from the same ACAC Adapter used for AC Voltage waveform measurement. The emontx v2 needs an additional 5V USB mini power supply.